¹ 1, 2015
According to A.Galkin’s assessment, the ever greater activation of the national identity that generates many new national problems is one of the most important components of the era of turmoil ushering into the world. This trend manifests itself in distinct ways on different continents and regions, but the similarity of looming shifts is beyond any doubt. The above said is fully applicable towards Russia. For several reasons, at the end of the last century the national self-consciousness of the ethnic core of the country – the Russian population – was significantly weaker than in many other countries, but today the situation has fundamentally changed, which under the conditions of dominant domestic and value conservatism is fraught with a surge of aggressive nationalism.
¹ 2, 2014
This article is devoted to the analysis of complex and contradictory processes that occur in mind, mood and political behavior of citizens of the relatively developed countries of the European area, including Russia. In contrast to the previous article (see Politeia, 2013, ¹ 4), the authors’ contemplations do not focus as much on public consciousness that de facto represents a theoretical construct based on the understanding of patterns of formation and historical development of group interpersonal relations, but rather on public mood that constitutes the thinnest upper layer of such consciousness. The paper shows that it is public mood, which only indirectly reflects the structure of social consciousness and is highly susceptible to opportunistic influences that determines mass political behavior. Exploring the reasons for the observed shifts today in the public mood and political behavior, A.Galkin draws attention to such factors as the increasingly complex structure of the modern society, imperfection of the established mechanisms of power, economic turmoil and the growing gap between public consciousness and rapid changes in the conditions of existence.
¹ 4, 2013
The article is devoted to the analysis of an important part of the social consciousness that the author defines as political capital. He views political capital as such a state of mass consciousness, under which a substantial amount of competencies is delegated to political power institutions and their leaders. Thereby, the society recognizes their right to make universally binding decisions as well as implement various actions, including enforcement measures, which are essential for the realization of these decisions, and, accordingly, declares its readiness to obey them. This is the basis for building prerequisites for the political process such as legitimacy of political system (regime), law-abiding people, and many others. Exploring the structure and content of political capital in relation to the modern society as a whole, A.Galkin also traces the impact of the dynamics of this capital on the situation in the post-Soviet Russia.
¹ 1, 2013
A new situation emerging in the world exerts multifaceted influence on such a phenomenon of the human political history as nation. National communities are subject to especially strong pressure from outside, which inevitably provokes a more acute response. Having stated the processes mentioned above A.Galkin thoroughly considers numerous challenges that institution of state faces nowadays, analyzes dynamics of national identity and explores the role of national problematique in confrontation of different political and ideological currents.
¹ 2, 2012
Proceeding with the topics touched upon in the previous article (see Politeia. 2012. ¹ 1), A.Galkin describes and justifies the complex of measures that should be taken in order if not to prevent, but at least to minimize threats hanging over the world. According to the author’s conclusion, due to the universal belatedness of the reaction against emerging challenges that made their overcoming extremely difficult and due to the obvious deficit of time that is now at manhood’s disposal, the acute issue on the agenda is not only about the elaboration of measures for the long-term perspective, but also the so called socio-political “first aid” that is capable of precluding further exacerbation of disease.
¹ 1, 2012
The fact that the humanity entered the period of deep and qualitative shifts no longer causes serious doubts among experts. However,a lot of questions conditioned on this fact are still unresolved. What is the meaning of the current changes? How important is their scope? What are probable threats that accompany them? Seeking answers to these questions A.Galkin considers in details knots of the shocks that emerged as long ago as at the end of the previous century and pose a serious threat to the established conditions of human existence. Having analyzed the aggregate of the concrete situations he comes to the conclusion that the universal belatedness of the reaction against emerging challenges made overcoming them extremely difficult. The relevant recipes are not ready yet, but postponing the solution to these problems till the emergence of such recipes is highly dangerous. It is necessary to at least temporarily accept palliatives, or the socio-political “first aid” that will preclude further exacerbation of disease.
¹ 2, 2011
February, 18th, 2011 the founder of our journal Aleksei Mikhailovich Salmin would have turned 60. The seminar Politeia named after him held a special meeting Salmin: In Memoriam arranged to coincide with his Anniversary (supported by the Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences, Russian Academy of Science, the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation and the Public Political Studies Center). It was conducted in the traditional within the world science genre of homage: participants of the seminar delivered their reports that were related in this way or the other to Salmin’s scientific interests, elaborated on his ideas and hypotheses bringing them back into the active scientific vocabulary. In this issue we are publishing reports by Alexander Galkin, Yury Pivovarov, Boris Makarenko, Yury Senokosov, Tatyana Alekseeva, Svyatoslav Kaspe, and hegumen Philipp (Ryabykh).
¹ 1, 2011
Having analyzed the specificity of the situation in the modern Russia, A.Galkin concludes that the country necessitates systemic modernization rather than techno-economic one with the former being impossible to implement without mobilizing if not the whole society, but at least its rather populous groups. According to his conclusions, in order to break the impasse and bring in motion the process of formation of the spiritual atmosphere in which modernization is perceived not only as possible, but also as desirable, in the first place it is necessary to improve and actively engage a set of mechanisms capable of stimulating public interest in modernization. This is the only case when modernizing impulses coming from above will be consistent with the aspiration towards modernization coming from below and will create necessary conditions for successful implementation of an urgent modernization breakthrough.
¹ 3, 2010
Not claiming the comprehensive and in-depth description of what was happening in the Soviet social sciences in the time period being considered, the founder of the first school of political sociology in our country shows how despite the objective difficulties and obstacles the ideological logjam was stepwise cleared and the political knowledge was accumulated, new horizons were opened, new scientists were prepared and trained for future breakthroughs. His personal considerations allow to feel this complex and contradictory spiritual atmosphere where the first works (after the decades) in political science were formed, appeared to public and turned into the elements of the social consciousness; allow to learn how the “grassless field” in spite of the unfavorable circumstances gave birth to new “sprouts of science”; how inexperienced researchers built their relations with a rather hostile government and what these scientists succeeded and failed in (both theoretically and practically).
¹ 1, 2010
The article explains the necessity of the political course based on modernization and innovative development and examines the challenges that our society is going to face given that it actually heads for this course. According to A.Galkin, all these problems are tractable, but their solutions require a “well-prepared siege” implying the core qualitative reforms rather than a “mounted attack”. The author concludes, for the transformation to the innovative development to become possible it is crucial that the political factor is organically included in this process. It is also of no less importance to create social and political institutions that can provide for the ultimate success of the undertaken efforts. This is the only chance for the innovative development to become real rather than virtual.
¹ 3, 2009
In this article the author tries to give the general description of the current world depression and represent its relatively whole situation. In his opinion, the objective estimation of the reasons and consequences of crisis is the conclusive condition of the appropriate reaction on its challenges. A.Galkin, analyzing the spectrum and dynamics of the crisis interpretation, pays attention to the essential characteristics of the present situation. In the sphere of his attention there is specifically the problem of different interchanging cycles, their coincidence and combinations. The socio-political cycle that seems to overlap with big economic fails, attracts special author's attention. The current globalization model which has modified the national governments functions and the regulative opportunities on their territories is named in the article as the source of new serious contradictions. Are there any odds as the result of the crisis there will be a new quality that will be able to more adequately react to the modern challenges? A.Galkin leaves this question open. He thinks that for the whole world’s renewal as shown by the past more time and efforts are needed.
¹ 1, 2009
The article analyzes the dynamics of political processes in modern Russia. Considering the development of the Russian political system in the post-soviet period A.Galkin distinguishes three stages. The first stage – the stage of formation (1990s) – has formed the characteristics that determined the specifics of the country’s political process. It is during that period that the democratic procedures that emerged during the perestroika have been formally established. At the same time some limitations were imposed on them that opened the way to bureaucratic degeneration and autocracy. At the second stage – root-taking (early 2000s) – these limitations became the backbone of political structure. The beginning of the third stage – the search of new frontiers – is marked with increasingly visible exhaustion of the system’s moving forces, the loss of its motion vector with the deterioration of an economic crisis. A.Galkin believes that only intelligent, considered policy that takes into account the interests of all layers of population and the state of mass consciousness is capable of minimizing the dangers that are being accumulated in today’s society.
On 12 November 2008 the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences held a round table discussion that analyzed the reasons and possible social and political consequences of the world economic crisis. Despite the fact that crisis processes only started gaining grounds when the discussion was held, all the participants agreed that this crisis in terms of its scale could be compared to the Great Depression of 1929–1933. At the same time, the statements underlined that, unlike the Great Depression that only affected capitalist countries with high and medium levels of development, this crisis has right away become worldwide not metaphorically, but literally. The discussion also drew attention to the crisis’s resistibility in relation to the regulating impulses that earlier allowed to deal with crisis phenomena. Participants at the round table concluded that, unless efficient anti-crisis tools are found, the crisis might create serious difficulties for the acting government or even for the whole social system, especially in the countries with poorly developed or transitional economies.
¹ 3, 2008
Believing that innovative development is a “categorical imperative” for states oriented at the maintenance and strengthening of their positions in the world community, A.Galkin makes a detailed analysis of the obstacles that prevent Russia from joining this path: from the deficit of highly qualified labour force and lamentable state of Russian science to the specificity of Russian elite’s consciousness and particular features of mass perception. The article proves convincingly that the country’s transition to innovative development requires such placement of strategic priorities that would differ from the one that follows from relevant official statements. In order for the innovative development to become a reality, a minefield of problems should be cleared, and there should be established the necessary social and political institutes capable of securing the success of undertaken efforts.
¹ 2, 2008
The article is tracing back the many-year-long dynamics of the right-wing parties, mostly in Western Europe, and points to the plasticity of their ideological and political percepts. When going over to the present situation, A.Galkin states a shift made by the conservative forces toward the right-wing center. The liberals have been evolving in the reverse direction. The loss of monopoly on values that gradually became the common human values as well as a break away from the democratic wing that mostly went into the camp of the left centrist forces have cleared the way for the liberal parties to go to the right flank. According to the author’s conclusion, at present the liberals seem to have changed places with the conservatives. The conservative parties were previously more to the right on the political scale than the liberals whereas now the liberals prove more right-wing than the conservatives. The only exception are the liberals in the United States and in a few more countries where they still continue in being as a left centrist political force.
¹ 2, 2007
On May 27, 2007 at the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, a round table discussion on social policy and its role in the modern political process took place. In this issue we give the extracts from the most interesting contributions of the round table discussion. In his introductory presentation A.Galkin analyzes the general problems of the social policy of the 21st century and the “hot buttons” of Russian social policy. V.Lyublinsky addresses the problem of balance between the efficiency and fairness of social policy. L.Mosckvin touches upon the influence of social policy on national security. I.Nedyack speaks about the latest management approaches to the development of social policy. M.Kargalova focuses her attention on the prospects of the development of European social model. One block of materials deals with the specific historical experience of addressing social problems in different countries. S.Levanskiy analyzes FRG experience, O.Velichko — Austria, I.Danilevich — Spain, M.Orlova — Ireland, I.Yazhborovskaya — Central Eastern and South Eastern Europe. In her contribution E.Sroganova reviews the social motives of the “left turn” in Latin America.
¹ 1, 2007
The author focuses his attention on the main approaches to the determination of Russia’s place in the globalizing world. A. Galkin divides them into sovereign active and subjectively passive. He believes that their differences lie in understanding of national interests, the assessment of resources, identifying of the most possible partners and designing of supposed actions and stages in the process of attaining of the goals. The choice of strategy implies tactical approaches and decisions. Besides, according to the author opposing each other strategies and real difficulties conditioned by historical development and specific circumstances will have to be taken into consideration.
¹ 2, 2006
In his lecture at the IV-th Congress of the Russian Political Science Association, A. Galkin focused his attention on the main contradictions and threats of the XXI-th century. In the lecture they were conventionally divided into the primary, secondary and tertiary ones. According to the author the first group of threats is related to the major problem of modern humanity - its growing pressure on the environment. The second group incorporates the consequences of the progressing globalization or, to be more precise, its negative aspects. And the third group incorporates the threats related to inadequate political practice on the alignment of the new world order. A. Galkin stresses that his estimates only deal with the tendencies which may be implemented to bigger or lesser extent. However, in order to mitigate their impact, a certain political effort based on what is to be expected and what is to be prepared for will be required.
¹ 1, 2006
At the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences a project covering the analysis of modern political thought and consequently its liberal conservative and left components is being implemented under the leadership of Professor Galkin. This publication is based on the papers of the round table discussion held in spring 2006 and dedicated to the left idea, its obvious crisis and the search of getting out of it and the evaluation of its supporters’ attempts to respond to radically changing reality. Left wing processes related to the attempts to work out an adequate response to modern challenges are studied using Germany, UK, France, Austria, Ireland and Poland as examples.
¹ 3, 2005
¹ 1, 2005
Old and new faces of a national problem
The author is focused on the phenomenon of a "new national question" that came to the top of agenda during the last several decades. The article analyzes the reasons for its appearance, its difference from traditional factors creating national problems and provoking inter-national antagonisms. A.Galkin studies mass migration flows heading from the third world countries to the most developed states of the Western Europe against the background of globalization, rapid development of mass-media (the awareness of different living standards is now occurring everywhere), qualitative perfection of means of transportation, etc. The author does not forget about social, socio-psychological, and political (including electoral) consequences of the "new national question".
¹ 1, 2003
Public tolerance: needs and obstacles.
The authors are convinced that the culture of tolerance is a necessary condition for strengthening of young Russian democracy, which is currently surviving a deep crisis. It is especially important since modern development polarizes private interests, and it is getting more and more difficult to reduce these to the common denominator. The corner stone of tolerant attitude to private interests and opinions, to groups and individuals expressing them is to recognize otherness as something natural and integral. The article covers the review of the social component of tolerance. An emphasis is made to the historical specifics of Russian tolerance.
¹ 2, 2002
The author dwells on the difference between globalization and globalism. He considers globalization to be an objective phenomenon. Besides, in his opinion modern globalization is one of the forms conditioned by the relation of global social forces, which is currently dominated by radical liberal views.
According to A. Galkin globalizm is a version of the awareness of the modern stage of globalization, its unique system of values and in some respect ideology. The formation of globalism was strongly influenced by powerful political and social forces interested in the establishment of its system of values. These forces have either won as a result of globalization or count to win. The author is critical about associating globalization with westernization, about imposing western forms of the organization of social life on other civilizations. He believes that it is more and more necessary to look for the alternative versions of globalization.
The special section of the magazine is dedicated to the memory of German Diligenskiy. It reads about Diligenskiy as a scientist and as a person. The scientist’s short autobiography and the list of his most significant works are given. And, finally, the last interview with Diligenskiy is published. In the interview he, in particular, shares his ideas about Russian political science.
¹ 4, 1999
Analyzing the main factors of social stability, including the scales and the character of changes, the amounts and forms of the political capital of the elites, the role of the political culture and civil society, the level of the individuals' inclusion to the social system, the author shows the fallacy of the widespread point of view that the contradictions come down gradually as society develops. He believes that, most likely, we deal with the extremely unstable condition, when the periods of aggravation of the social contradictions are replaced by more or less long periods of abatement and vice versa. The analysis of the present situation leads the author to the conclusion that the number of the serious unsolved contradictions in the modern world both in the countries of "golden milliard" and the world periphery is growing. A new historic technological breakthrough, the transition from the industrial methods of manufacture to the postindustrial ones as its consequence and a new phase of globalization conditioned by this breakthrough, the weakening of the national institutes under the pressure of supranational structures, the rupture between the countries of "golden milliard" and the rest of the world raise the search problem of the effective forms of the adaptation to changes. These forms could prevent the real danger of destabilization the social systems face regardless of their type.
¹ 3, 1998
The article, that presents a synopsis of the book by the same authors «Russia on the Crossroad: Authoritarian Rule or Democracy: Possible Models of Development» (published in 1998) analyses the reasons for the growth of autocratic tendencies in the Russian political elite and the society in general and considers the negative consequences of a potential autocratic evolution of the political system. This scenario is counterbalanced by still non-exhausted possibilities of the democratic development of Russia.
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