Citations and References Formatting

Main Page ~ Author Guidelines ~ Citations and References Formatting

In-text citations

In-text citations should be given in footnotes with end-to-end numbering and include authors' last names, year of publication and pages (in case of quotations or references to the concrete parts of the cited works).

Art 2006.

Art 2006: 100–101 — pages are indicated after a colon

Spector and Kitsuse 1977.

North, Wallis, and Weingast 2009.

Baumgartner et al. 2009 — if there are more than three authors.

Art 2006; Gellner 2015.

Freedman 2017a: 100; Freedman 2017b — letters a, b, c... indicate different works of the same author published in the same year.


If an author's name is not indicated in References, in-text citations should include editors, if any, or first word(s) in a title:

Bernhard and Kubik (eds.) 2014.

Culture 1980.

Radical Xenophobia 2004.


In-text citations for classical works by Ancient authors and sacred texts should only include standard page numbers and classification (and translator’s name if necessary).

Plato, Timaeus: 50b–53c (transl. by B.Jowett).

Matt. 23:38.


In-text citations for a periodical as a whole should include its title, year of publication, volume (if any) and issue (or day and month of a publication).

Political Studies 2000, vol. 3, no. 2.

Denver Post, 28 February 2010.


In-text citations for Internet resources should include full URL:



References are composed alphabetically without numbering. The classical works of ancient authors and sacred texts are not included in references.

Books should include authors' (editors') last names and initials, year of publication, title, place of publication and publishing house.

Articles in print periodicals should include authors’ last names and initials, year of publication, title (with quotation marks), title of a journal or a newspaper, volume (if any), issue and pages.

For articles in periodicals that have both printed and Internet versions with free access, full URL should be added. For Internet publications without a printed equivalent, only URL should be provided. It is not recommended to refer to the Internet versions of non-periodical publications that also have a print equivalent, in which the original pagination is not preserved.

Articles and chapters in books/monographs and edited volumes should include authors’ last names and initials, year of publication, title of an article (with quotation marks), title of a book/monograph or edited volume (indicating authors/editors’ last names and initials), place of publication, publishing house and pages.

Use italics for a title of a book, an edited volume, or periodical. Use letters a, b, c...  to indicate different works of the same author published in the same year.




In-text citations: Art 2006.

References: Art D. (2006) The Politics of the Nazi Past in Germany and Austria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


In-text citations: Spector and Kitsuse 1977.

References: Spector M. and J.I. Kitsuse. (1977) Constructing Social Problems. Menlo Park: Cummings.


In-text citations: North, Wallis, and Weingast 2009.

References: North D.C., J.J.Wallis, and B.R.Weingast. (2009) Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. Cambridge, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.


Collective monographs and edited volumes

In-text citations: Bernhard and Kubik (eds.) 2014.

References: Bernhard M. and J.Kubik, eds. (2014) Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


In-text citations: Culture 1980.

References: Culture, Media, Language. (1980) L.: Hutchinson.


In-text citations: Radical Xenophobia 2004.

References: Radical Xenophobia and Political Extremism in Contemporary Socio-Cultural Space. (2004) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Articles in periodicals (including Internet versions)

In-text citations: Bell 2003.

References: Bell D.S.A. (2003) «Mythscapes: Memory, Mythology, and National Identity» // British Journal of Sociology, vol. 54, no. 1: 63–81.


In-text citations: Lipset 1968a.

References: Lipset S.M. (1968a) «Students and Politics in Comparative Perspective» // Daedalus, vol. 97, no. 1: 1–20.


In-text citations: Hilgartner and Bosk 1988.

References: Hilgartner S. and C.L.Bosk. (1988) «The Rise and Fall of Social Problems: A Public Arenas Model» // American Journal of Sociology, vol. 94, no. 1: 53–78.


In-text citations: Baumgartner et al. 2009.

References: Baumgartner F.R., C.Green-Pedersen, B.D.Jones, P.Mortensen, M.Neytenmans, and S.Walgrave. (2009) «Punctuated Equilibrium in Comparative Perspective» // American Journal of Political Science, vol. 53, no. 3: 602–619.


In-text citations: Television News 2007.

References: «Television News, Real-World Cues, and Changes in the Public Agenda» (2007) // Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 1: 38–57.


In-text citations: Frates 2003.

References: Frates Ch. (2003) «High School Junior Suspended after Posting Anti-war Fliers» // Denver Post, 28 February. URL: (accessed 11.05.2015).


Articles/chapters/sections in monographs and edited volumes

In-text citations: Fields 1969.

References: Fields A.B. (1969) «The Revolution Betrayed: the French Student Revolt of May-June 1968» // Lipset S.M. and P.G.Altbach, eds. Students in Revolt. Boston: Houghton Mifflin: 127–166.


Texts in collected works

In-text citations: Hobbes 1840.

References: Hobbes Th. (1840) «Human Nature, of the Fundamental Elements of Policy» // Molesworth W., ed. English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury. Vol. IV. L.: John Bohn, 1–77.



In-text citations: Jones 2013.

References: Jones P. (2013) Local Elections in Authoritarian Regimes. Ph.D. diss. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.


Internet publications

In-text citations: Dickinson 2015.

References: Dickinson C. (2015) Slavoj Žižek on Jacques Derrida, or On Derrida’s Search for a Middle Ground Between Marx and Benjamin, and His Finding Žižek Instead. URL: (accessed 11.07.2017).