№ 4, 2019
This article discusses evolution of the interpretations of jihad from the angle of two worldview platforms represented in the system of views of intellectuals in the Islamic world — minimalist and maximalist. These platforms differ in their perception of social reality, as well as concepts of truth and justice, which are basic for Islam. Minimalism in general allows critical attitude to the surrounding reality, even in Islamic states, as well as local interpretation of the concepts of truth and justice. Maximalism endorses critical attitude towards reality only in the states where Islamic laws do not apply, and only if approved by the highest religious authorities. Maximalism interprets concepts of truth and justice as universal. In accordance with Islamic moral and ethical norms, both platforms have the right to exist, and the choice between them is an individual matter of every Muslim. As a result, the Islamic communities witness stratification not only of the elite, but also of the Ummah, which is divided into a “systemic” opposition that is ready for a dialogue with the government, and a “non-systemic” opposition that a priori excludes the possibility of a dialogue with the government.
According to the authors, the events of the Arab Spring were caused by the spread of the elite’s split into the entire Ummah, which created the basis for intra-Islamic tension, which, in its turn, pushed a poorly organized mass of believers into the streets of Arab cities. The authors describe the current stage in the development of the Islamic community as a period of liminality i.e., a structural crisis associated with political and social instability, a change in group and individual forms of self-identification and sharp cognitive dissonance among ordinary believers, coupled with an increasing trend towards re- Islamization in countries of non-canonical Islam.
№ 3, 2015
On the basis of the mathematical analysis of the electoral statistics A.Korotaev and L.Isaev come to the conclusion that V.Yanukovych lost Ukraine long before the events of 2013–2014. The research conducted by the authors shows that before the start of these events most of the country’s south-east regions that supported the Party of Regions were characterized by a very high level of political passivity, which contrasted with the Central and especially Western Ukraine, as well as Kiev, where high political activity of the population was combined with pro-orange sentiments. Thus, in November 2013 Yanukovych found himself in a very disadvantageous position, which largely led to his downfall.
№ 2, 2014
On the basis of the comparative analysis of the protests that swept countries of the North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 and Ukraine in 2013–2014, the authors conclude that these protest movements are fully consistent with the phenomenon referred to in the Arab political culture as “fitna” (strife, rebellion). Having fixed a whole array of parameters (heterogeneity of social composition and political attitudes of protest participants, ambiguity of their demands, unresponsiveness to rational arguments etc.) that make unrest in the Arab world and in Ukraine similar to the traditional “fitna”, L.Isaev and A.Shishkina also draw attention to the specific features of the modern “fitna” associated with the development of internet technologies. According to their conclusion, the emergence of fundamentally new means of mass communication alters the format of political activity in the world to such an extent that authorities are often unable to adequately assess a threat posed by protesters and thus, commit fatal errors.
Main Page ~ Authors ~ Isaev Leonid