№ 2, 2018
The article is devoted to one of the key problems in the theory of revolution — the problem of the classification of revolutions. All of the existing approaches to the classification of revolutions typically reflect theoretical views of researchers. Theoretical concepts always prevail over the real events, whether revolutions are classified according to their mission, civilizational features, driving forces or ideological orientation. Those cases that do not fit the theoretical concept are usually simply ignored. The article proposes a fundamentally different approach to the problem. In contrast to a theory-driven approach, the author suggests revolutions should be classified from the point of view of revolutions themselves as a phenomenon and an object of the analysis with the help of two criteria: first, algorithm (course and stages of revolution) and the temporal sequence of revolutions; second, tasks that revolutions solve. On the basis of the comparative analysis of all the revolutionary events that took place in the world, he comes to the conclusion that there are two types of revolutions, each of which is divided into three subtypes. This analytical model allows, first, to introduce a single classification element of revolutions that encompass all phenomena of this kind; second, to explain differences in the manifestations of revolutions; and third, to move from the specific to the general (i.e. generalized theory of revolution) and to raise the question of the theoretical justification for the origin of revolutions.
Main Page ~ Authors ~ Shults Eduard