¹ 3, 2013
The article describes the contribution to the voting theory made by the French scientists J.C. de Borda (1733–1799) and Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794), who for the first time in the world history started to address voting as a scientific problem employing mathematical apparatus and method of model situations analysis for its solution. Having examined in details the works by Borda and Condorcet in this area, V.Volsky draws attention to the fact that it is these works that led to realization that the notion of the «majority of votes» is far from being unambiguous and its use for determining a winner during elections might lead to paradoxical results.
¹ 3, 2012
In the article the author explores the contribution into the voting theory made by the English mathematician who became widely known as the author of the fairy tales Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass as well as a number of other literature works published under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. According to V.Volsky, the works by Dodgson in the sphere of the voting theory are interesting along several lines. First, the author critically analyzed a number of widespread voting procedures having clearly demonstrated that their usage might result in paradoxical situations such that a candidate is elected whom the common sense would never have acknowledged as the best one. Second, knowing nothing about the works by his predecessors he elaborated voting procedures that are based on the sum of ranks and pairwise comparison of candidates and determined the possibility of the emergence of cycles. Third, he offered a totally new approach towards deciding on a winner in pairwise comparison of candidates introducing the notion of the level of superiority of one candidate over the other. This notion is the core of the voting procedure that is named after Dodgson.
¹ 3, 2011
The author in this article describes a voting procedure that was offered in the 15th century by Nicolaus Cusanus, the greatest German philosopher, theologist and church activist. Having examined this procedure, V.Volsky shows that it was Nicolaus Cusanus who in reality invented the method of determining a winner in the elections within small groups traditionally associated with the name of the French academic Jean-Charles de Borda.
¹ 2, 2011
The article analyzes actual practices of application of the single transferable vote electoral systems. The authors thoroughly describe various types of procedure: Gregory method used in Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and Northern Ireland; inclusive Gregory method employed at the elections to the Australian Senate as well as in such states as Southern and Western Australia; weighted inclusive Gregory method introduced in Scotland; Meek’s method applied in New Zealand. The authors analyze advantages and disadvantages of each method and demonstrate how the improvement in theoretical models leads to the alteration of electoral systems functioning in practice.
¹ 1, 2011
The article describes three procedures of voting elaborated by Ramon LLull, a distinguished medieval poet, philosopher and theologist. Having reviewed these procedures, V.Volsky demonstrated that it was LLull who actually invented the method of pairwise comparison of candidates and not Marquis de Condorcet as it is commonly considered.
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