Abstracts 4, 2004

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Foreign Policy Perspectives

Igor Ivanov

Competing models and scenarios of the new world order formation: the essence and the prospect of implementation

The author states that the bipolar system which ensured a certain level of strategic stability seized to exist with the end of the Cold War. According to I.Ivanov, the transition period in international relations could be dragged out for a long time, especially considering that the process of globalization is yet far from completion. The article analyzes projects and recommendations concerning the future development of international relations in a globalizing world. Depending on political and philosophical stances of their authors, I.Ivanov classifies these projects into five categories: a neo-liberal scenario, a conflict of civilizations scenario, “realistic” scenarios, the US informal predominance scenario and a multipolar model scenario. The work proves the multipolar world order to be an objective demand of the globalization.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-5-14

Pages: 5-14


Alexandr Kuznetsov

Inheriting legends sanctified by the time... (From the history of the Russian foreign policy doctrine)

Resting upon archives and other materials, the author analyzes the history of Russia’s foreign policy doctrine at the late 19th – early 20th centuries. According to A.Kuznetsov, the conceptual legacy of the older Russia needs further consideration and, more importantly, creative analysis applicable to current objectives of the country’s foreign policy. The author believes that the thinking of those who elaborated the older Russia’s foreign policy lay in a broad historical perspective, which let them foresee many of the things that correspond to modern conceptions of the countries’ national interests. The author marks out, among others, the aspiration to solve the centennial contradiction between the great power status of the country and the lack of military and economic resources, the quest for ways to comply foreign policy with the interests of internal social and economic development.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-15-27

Pages: 15-27

Global Perspective

Kamen Denchev

Antiglobalism and international terrorism

Today’s international terrorism is interpreted in the article as a special case of the antiglobalist movement. The author specifies that the former stays apart from antiglobalism, but still is located on the same side of the barricade, because despite everything it constitutes a form of anti-system illegitimate protest. International terrorism itself is as well a manifestation of the world’s anti-Western and anti-American aspirations.

K.Denchev goes back to the great antiquity to find analogies of contemporary terrorism. Yet he believes that terrorism did not acquire its international character until 1960s-1980s. The early 1990s demonstrated even more considerable shifts. At the time the terrorists no longer have any specific political objectives, they give up their left-wing ideological tint and lack the instinct of self-preservation. The author particularly emphasized the fact that terrorism has gained publicity due to modern information technologies.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-28-40

Pages: 28-40

Russian Polity

Richard Sakwa

Political culture: possibilities of and difficulties in applying the concept to the analysis of the processes of accelerated changes

A well-known English political scientist focuses his analysis on the contemporary Russia transgressing the period of transition. To consider the possible variants of its further development the author applies a political and cultural approach. In this connection he analyzes a broad range of views of foreign and Russian authors whose concepts are to some extent linked to these issues. R.Sakwa turns to historical data and focuses particularly on what impact had the four periods of redistribution of power and property on Russia. Along with the Gorbatchev’s period, the author singles out the oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible, reforms of Peter I and the Bolsheviks revolution.

R.Sakwa believes it not possible for a country to copy directly other countries’ political institutions and practice. To determine a reasonable balance between national traditions of political culture and necessary adaptation to the new reality, between authoritarian and democratic tendencies becomes a central line of the article.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-41-68

Pages: 41-68


Aleksander Akhiezer

Migration in Russian history.

Stressing the critical role of migration in the creation and further growth of the Russian state, the author points out its two main flows. Firstly, migration is presented as colonization of new territories which reflected, among other, the dominance of the extensive production standards. Secondly, migration provided the possibility for avoiding an everyday government pressure, the embodiment of the pre-state ideal of the will. The article puts special emphasis on the qualitative turning point in migration in late 1970s, when centrifugal tendencies (aspiration to spread in all possible directions) gave sudden rise to centripetal, reverse tendencies. According to A.Akhiezer, this demonstrated a breakup with a millennial historical tradition, and it is quite important to comprehend this in the context of prospects of Russia’s development.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-69-76

Pages: 69-76

Religion and Politics

Alexei Sitnikov

Orthodoxy and democracy. On the impact of religion on Russias political perceptions and political culture

The author believes that the main problem in building a democratic society does not consist in proclaiming certain principles or norms. Rather these principles and norms need to be accepted by the society and “work” in its real life. The democracy in the West has long ago been integrated into the history, and traditions and customs of each people co-exist in some indissoluble unity. A.Sitnikov puts forward a thesis that in Russia too moral principles of Christianity could contribute to the creation of spiritual prerequisites for democracy, civil society and legal culture. The article provides proves of that most orthodox believers are oriented on a democratic state system.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-77-95

Pages: 77-95

Federalism and local self-government

Andrei Usyagin

Problem of levels in territorial government.

The author raises the question of the role of levels in territorial government. The main objective A.Usyagin sets in his work is to solve the problem of defining the level of power from which on one may talk about political process and political governance. To his mind, in order to perceive a process as political there need to exist groups of interests and the conflict of interests, competition of diverse political elites, competition among mass-media, and certain intellectual and industrial potential. According to the author, initial all-sufficiency of a region that permits it secure internal economic bonds and needs and create local commercial market appears at the point when the population mounts to 200-300 thousand people.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-96-101

Pages: 96-101


Vladimir Lapin

Level and subject of government: reflecting upon the article Problem of levels in territorial government by A.V.Usyagin.

Commenting on the article by A.Usyagin V.Lapin welcomes his attempt to put under discussion the issues of levels and qualitative criteria for establishing appropriate territorial government units. He believes, however, that Usyagin’s method could turn not to be efficient enough when analyzing the space that was left after a long period of centralized state government. Among the consequences of such government the author marks out, specifically, an extreme difference in the territories’ fiscal potential. The latter prevents a considerable number of existing territorial units from transferring to the independent governing of its social and economic development.

V.Lapin offers his own vision of today’s state development, of which the process of decentralizing state government is considered an optimal element.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-102-109

Pages: 102-109

Laboratory

Rostislav Turovsky

Geographical patterns of electoral transit in post-communist states.

The study of geographical patterns of voters’ electoral behaviour rests upon foreign countries’ material and serves an empirical basis for the article. Issues 1 and 2 of last year’s “Politeia” journal have already published articles analyzing such processes in 24 Western democracies. In this work R.Turovsky studies the voting patterns in post-communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as in the CIS.

The author defines particular features of elections in innovational centers, peripheries and semi-peripheries, establishing the fact that regional elections depend on the cleavages between centers and peripheries, as well as cultural and geographical cleavages. The article reveals complex interrelationship between geographical, socio-cultural and political parameters.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-110-149

Pages: 110-149

Cathedra

Iouri Irkhin

Political science in universities of Canada: status, genesis, schools, teaching.

This study of the current state and development of political science in Canada focuses mainly on the country’s universities. As a matter of fact, it is there that works the majority of Canadian political scientists. The author notes that political science enjoys a very high status that remains unchanged since the opening of the first political science departments in the very beginning of the 20th century. The fact that the country held two world congresses of International political science association (in 1973 and 2000) is considered by Y.Irkhin to be an undoubted recognition of the authority of Canadian political scientists.

The work analyzes different schools in Canadian political science, names some of the most known political scientists of Canada, and pays considerable attention to the organization of the political science teaching process.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-150-169

Pages: 150-169

Book Review

Kirill Kholodkovsky

Non-academical political science. Galkin A.A. On politics and political science (Razmyshleniya o politike i politicheskoy nauke). M.: Izdatelstvo Overlay, 2004. 278 p.

The review covers a new book by A.A.Galkin, patriarch of the Russian political science. K.Kholodkovsky emphasizes the fact that A.Galkin is one of the founders of Russian political science and political sociology, he managed to incorporate their methods in his works back during the soviet period, long before these disciplines were officially “legalized” (in the wake of the 1970s and 1990s, accordingly).

The book comprises both A.Galkin’s earlier publications and new works. The reviewer analyzes and assesses his contribution to the study of such problems as globalization, authoritarianism, federalism, state, civil society.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-170-180

Pages: 170-180


Valery Lyubin

EUs Eastern neighbourhood in the eyes of German political scientists. Piehl H., Schulze P.W., Timmermann H. Die offene Flanke der Europ?ischen Union: Russische F?deration, Belarus, Ukraine und Moldau. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2005. 557 S. (., ., .. : , , , 2005, 557 .)

The author qualifies the new book written by four well-know German scholars on Eastern Europe as a noticeable contribution to the discussion on the ways that takes post-Soviet modernization and the future of Europe. According to V.Lyubin, the views stated in the book under review allow one to reveal the differences in Western and domestic political interpreters’ approaches and assessments.

Analyzing separately each of the book’s four chapters, the author pays specific attention to such issues as how long the ‘political vacuum’ (Ukraine, Moldova and Byelorussia) between Russia and the European Union can exist; to what extent the EU that still finds it difficult to ‘digest’ its 10 new members is capable of further enlargement in the nearest future.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-181-189

Pages: 181-189

Chronicle

Yury Korgunyuk

Countdown: contours of a new discrepancy (Russian political parties in winter 2004-2005.).

In the traditional section of the “Politeia” journal the author provides the chronicle of the main developments in the life of Russian political parties in winter 2004-2005. As usual, the chronicle is supported by the analysis of alignment of political forces during the period. According to the author, the crisis following the repeal of benefits has stimulated radical shifts across the political spectrum. Youry Korgunyuk believes that the new populist wave is capable of ultimately reshaping the map of party discrepancy.

DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2004-35-4-190-215

Pages: 190-215